What Is Shotcrete? Properties, Application, Use, And Advantages


Shotcreting, also known as the shotcrete process, is a versatile construction technique that involves the application of concrete or mortar at a high velocity onto a surface. This method is widely used in the construction industry for various applications, ranging from structural repairs and ground support to new construction projects. This article will explore shotcrete’s properties, applications, uses, and advantages.

What Is Shotcrete?

Shotcrete is mortar or excellent concrete that has been jetted at high speed onto a surface that has been prepared. The system is known by many trade names in other nations, including Guncrete, Nucrete, Pneukrete, Torkrete, Blastcrete, etc., but the basic idea is the same.

Shotcrete has advantages over traditional concrete in a number of new construction projects since it requires less formwork and can be manufactured and placed using only a small portable machine.

It may form a great bond with various materials, which may be crucial.

To provide a sturdy and weatherproof surface, shotcrete should be bent with water for at least 14 days after the concrete has reached a suitable set, much like other concretes. This is necessary to prevent fractures. After 28 days, properly cured spray concrete can reach 450–550 kg/cm2 strengths.

Processes Of Shotcrete

Dry Mix Process

The cement and moist sand combination is transported by delivery hose pipe to delivery equipment, a specialized mechanical feeder or a cannon.

The mixture was metered into the delivery pipe using a feed wheel or distributor. This substance is transported by compressed air through a perforated manifold, where water is injected under pressure and combined with other substances.

High-velocity mortar was fired from the nozzle onto the area that would receive shotcrete. The nozzleman can quickly change the water used in this procedure.

When concrete is thrown onto a vertical surface with higher water content, it tends to droop. So that there is a minimum quantity of material wasted during rebound, the water volume should be regulated. Between 0.33 and 0.50 is the ideal water-to-cement ratio.

It is possible to use shotcrete using this method with various equipment. The machinery that ensures a steady supply of mortar ranges from 300 to 500 m horizontally and 45 to 100 m vertically.

Wet Mix Process

Cement, sand, small-sized coarse aggregate, and water are mixed in this procedure before entering the delivery equipment’s chamber.

Additional air is injected at the nozzle to boost velocity and enhance the running pattern once the ready-mixed concrete is metered into 7 atmospheres. Concrete may be placed with equipment at 3 to 9 m3/hour.

Rebound is a phenomenon where a portion of mortar or concrete jetted onto a surface to be treated will fall back due to the high velocity of the jet. It depends on the water-cement ratio and the kind and location of the treated surface.

When using lightweight concrete, the dry mix method is favoured. Using less water in the cement produces higher strengths, less creep and drying shrinkage, and more durability. In contrast, applying air-entraining agents makes producing increased durability during the wet process simple.

When the water-cement ratio can be precisely controlled during the wet phase, the wet process only brings on the majority of difficulties when higher concrete placement rates are achieved using the greater capacity of the wet mix process.

Properties Of Shotcrete

Shotcreting has a number of qualities that make it a desirable building method. Excellent bonding is one of its primary attributes. The shotcrete’s high-velocity application guarantees Strong adherence to various substrates, such as concrete, steel, rock, and soil. The shotcrete surface performs better over the long run and is more durable because of this characteristic.

The adaptability of shotcrete is also well recognized. Complex forms, curves, and uneven surfaces may all be treated with it. Shotcrete is a material that may be used for various purposes, including the building of swimming pools, tunnel linings, and architectural features. It can also conform to complex designs and offer a consistent thickness.

Furthermore, shotcrete possesses excellent compressive strength. This high-strength property makes it an ideal choice for load-bearing structures that require structural integrity, such as retaining walls, bridges, and foundations.

Applications And Uses Of Shotcreting

Shotcreting is extensively used in several building projects across numerous sectors. Shotcrete is employed in the mining industry for ground support in underground excavations. Shotcrete is an effective way to stabilize mining tunnels and stop rock falls because of its speedy installation and dependable reinforcing qualities.

Building tunnels and other underground constructions is a prominent use of shotcrete. Shotcrete may be utilized successfully for original linings, repairs, and building rehabilitation. It offers a strong, waterproof liner that protects the tunnels’ lifespan and safety.

Additionally, shotcreting is frequently used to build water-retaining structures like swimming pools and storage tanks. Shotcrete is a perfect material for building waterproof buildings that can tolerate continuous exposure to moisture because of its flexibility in shaping complicated shapes and resistance to water.

Shotcreting is also frequently used for slope stabilization and landslip prevention operations. It offers reinforcement, stops additional erosion, and lowers the possibility of landslides by adding shotcrete to vulnerable slopes.

Shotcreting offers a variety of options for architectural applications. Unique and beautiful designs may be made with it, including sculptures, free-form buildings, and ornamental facades. Shotcrete’s adaptability enables designers and architects to realize their concepts while preserving the structural integrity of the built pieces.

Are you looking for an efficient concrete placement? TEESIN concrete pump delivers precise and fast concrete pouring, saving you time and labour costs. Experience the convenience and reliability of our concrete pump services today.

Advantages Of Shotcreting

Shotcreting, which involves spraying concrete or mortar onto a surface at rapid speed, has a number of benefits over conventional building techniques. It is a favoured option in many building projects because of its special qualities and application strategies. Let’s go deeper into the benefits of shotcrete.

Quick And Effective Construction

Construction may be completed more quickly with shotcreting than with traditional methods. Shotcrete is applied at a rapid rate, which speeds up construction and uses fewer workers. Due to its efficiency, time-sensitive projects find it a desirable alternative since it reduces costs and shortens project durations.

Outstanding Bonding and Stability

Shotcreting’s ability to create great bonding is one of its main benefits. The high-velocity application ensures Strong adhesion to various surfaces, including concrete, steel, rock, and dirt. This solid bond improves the shotcrete surface’s long-term performance and durability, making it appropriate for various applications.

Versatility in Shape and Design

Shotcreting allows for design and form freedom. Its capacity to adhere to complicated shapes, curves, and uneven surfaces makes constructing distinctive and specialized buildings possible. Shotcreting is a fantastic option for architectural applications since it allows designers and engineers to realize their imaginative designs fully.


Shotcrete is a versatile construction material with excellent bonding, durability, and versatility. Its applications range from mining and tunneling to architectural designs and slope stabilization. Shotcrete offers advantages such as faster construction, high compressive strength, and cost savings, making it a preferred choice in the industry.


Leave a reply